The Definition of Altitude Illness
The three main forms of altitude sickness are:
- AMS = Acute Mountain Sickness
- HACE = High Altitude Cerebral Edema
- HAPE = High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
In 1991, an international symposium on hypoxia was held at Lake Louise in Alberta, Canada, and produced the following definitions for the diagnosis of altitude sickness.
|AMS||In the setting of a recent gain in altitude, the presence of headache and at least one of the following symptoms:|
|HACE||Can be considered “end stage” or severe AMS. In the setting of a recent gain in altitude, either:|
|HAPE||In the setting of a recent gain in altitude, the presence of the following:|
| Symptoms: at least two of:|
| Signs: at least two of:|
Learn more in the YoWangdu Series on Altitude Sickness:
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Reference for the information in the table: The Lake Louise Consensus on the Definition and Quantification of Altitude Illness in Sutton JR, Coates G, Houston CS (eds), Hypoxia and Mountain Medicine. Queen City Printers, Burlington, Vermont, 1992.